science. Understood historically or traditionally (that is, prior to folks like Francis Bacon and Kepler), science (Latin scientia; Greek epistêmê) means knowledge. It was however, the “best” kind of knowledge: not only is it true, but (as opposed to mere opinion, even true opinion) it is also rationally grounded. This kind of knowledge works according to the canons of logic, paradigmatically articulated in Aristotle’s logical works (the Organon). Logic includes a principled understanding of how genera and species work and are used in predication and presuppose, for example, systematic use of definitions of terms. For Aristotle (and, following his lead, Thomas Aquinas) science is a body of thought or an activity rooted in the systems of investigation which include the “logos” of nature (Aristotle’s Physics), what we could call “natural philosophy,” and also metaphysics, what Aristotle calls “first philosophy.” Mathematical principles are incorporated into both, and for Aristotle and Thomas mathematics is a paradigm example of science, working as it does with first principles, axioms, theorems, etc. (all outlined in the Organon). Aristotle’s ethical works (including the Politics) are not considered to be science, but are instead examples of practical wisdom (even if they rely upon scientific knowledge, such as some material in Aristotle’s _On the Soul_, which he considers to be part of natural philosophy).